The type of the column wrapper attributes on GINO models.
This is the core utility to enable GINO models so that:
Accessing a column attribute on a model class returns the column itself
Accessing a column attribute on a model instance returns the value for that column
This utility is customizable by defining
__attr_factory__in the model class.
dictthat allows getting keys by values.
Used internally by
Get key by value.
value – A value in this dict.
default – If specified value doesn’t exist, return default.
The corresponding key if the value is found, or default otherwise.
The base class of GINO models.
This is not supposed to be sub-classed directly,
declarative_base()should be used instead to generate a base model class with a given
MetaData. By defining subclasses of a model, instances of
sqlalchemy.schema.Tablewill be created and added to the bound
MetaData. The columns of the
Tableinstance are defined as
from sqlalchemy import MetaData, Column, Integer, String from gino.declarative import declarative_base Model = declarative_base() class User(db.Model): __tablename__ = "users" id = Column(Integer(), primary_key=True) name = Column(String())
The name of the columns are automatically set using the attribute name.
An instance of a model will maintain a memory storage for values of all the defined column attributes. You can access these values by the same attribute name, or update with new values, just like normal Python objects:
u = User() assert u.name is None u.name = "daisy" assert u.name == "daisy"
Accessing column attributes on a model instance will NOT trigger any database operation.
Other built-in class attributes:
This is a required attribute to define a concrete model, meaning a
sqlalchemy.schema.Tableinstance will be created, added to the bound
MetaDataand set to the class attribute
__table__. Not defining
__tablename__will result in an abstract model - no table instance will be created, and instances of an abstract model are meaningless.
This should usually be treated as an auto-generated read-only attribute storing the
An attribute factory that is used to wrap the actual
Columninstance on the model class, so that the access to the column attributes on model instances is redirected to the in-memory value store. The default factory is
ColumnAttribute, can be override.
The internal in-memory value store as a
dict, only available on model instances. Accessing column attributes is equivalent to accessing
declarative_base(metadata, model_classes=(<class 'gino.declarative.Model'>, ), name='Model')¶
Create a base GINO model class for declarative table definition.
Mark a class-level method as a factory of attribute.
This is intended to be used as decorators on class-level methods of a
Modelclass. When initializing the class as well as its subclasses, the decorated factory method will be called for each class, the returned result will be set on the class in place of the factory method under the same name.
@declared_attris implemented differently than
declared_attrof SQLAlchemy, but they are both more often used on mixins to dynamically declare indices or constraints (also works for column and
__table_args__, or even normal class attributes):
class TrackedMixin: created = db.Column(db.DateTime(timezone=True)) @db.declared_attr def unique_id(cls): return db.Column(db.Integer()) @db.declared_attr def unique_constraint(cls): return db.UniqueConstraint('unique_id') @db.declared_attr def poly(cls): if cls.__name__ == 'Thing': return db.Column(db.Unicode()) @db.declared_attr def __table_args__(cls): if cls.__name__ == 'Thing': return db.UniqueConstraint('poly'),
This doesn’t work if the model already had a